Tropical Rainfall Measurements

$79.00

[ADP-vol123]

Tropical rain systems constitute a life-giving resource for billions of people, but their large variability represents a serious threat to those same people in the form of drought or flood extremes. The tropical rainfall process provides an important coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere and a key link in the quasi-periodic phenomenon known as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Of course, convective tropical rain systems provide an important mechanism for fluxes from the troposphere to the stratosphere. Inherent in these precipitation-producing processes is a mechanism for charge separation between the earth and the ionosphere and, finally, precipitation provides an important scavenging mechanism for removing gaseous and aerosol chemicals from the lower atmosphere.

Significant progress in the area of tropical rainfall measurements has been spurred by the development of new measuring techniques that make it feasible to observe precipitation from space. This, of course, presents the potential for measuring rainfall not only over well-instrumented continental areas, but over the vast oceanic regions as well.

CONTENTS
PREFACE……………………………………………. … …….. . . . …. xi
PARTICIPANTS LIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The Age of Earth Observation Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Dr. Tatsuro Marsumae
SESSION A. REQUIREMENTS FOR MEASURING TROPICAL RAINFALL,
ITS NATURE AND ITS ROLE IN THE GENERAL CIRCULATION
Tropical Rainfull From Space …………………………………. .
Joanne Simpson
Overview of Japan TRMM Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
A. Sumi
Time-Space Scales of Low Frequency Tropical Rainfull Variability . . . . . . . . . . 13
Eugene M. Ra.smusson, Chester E Ropelewski and Michael ┬Ěs. Ha/pen
Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)
Rohen A. Schiffer
Convective and Stratiform Precipitation in the Tropics
Rohen A. Houze, Jr.
Analysis of the Super Cloud Cluster By Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
21
27
(GMS) IR 3-Hourly Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Tetsuo Nakazawa
The Role of the Equatorial Heat Sources on the Onsets of the Asian
Summer Monsoon of 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Ken-ichi Kuma
World Water Balance: Analysis of FGGE Ilib Data……. . ………. . . . . . 51
Kooiti Masuda
Sensitivity of Climatic Response in a GCM to the Selection of a Cumulus
Parameterization Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
M.A. Geller, Y.C. Sud, H.M. Helfand, and K. Takano
Low Latitude Precipitation Characteristics of the MRI GCM and Cumulus
Parameterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Tatsushi Tokioka, Koji Yamazaki, AJ<io Kitoh and Tomoaki Ose
V
Variability of Rainfull Over Tropical Oceans: Scientific Basis and Justification
for TRMM……………………………………………….. 75
J. Shukla
An Application of Satellite-Derived Precipitation in Data Assimilation for
Numerical Weather Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
M. Ueno
Long-Term Variations of Convective Activities in the Tropical Western Pacific
and Their Effects on the Global Atmospheric Circulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Tsuyoshi Nitta
On The Role of Convective Activity in the Western Tropical Pacific in the
Formation of the Barotropic High Around Japan During Summer . . . . . . . . . . . 93
T. Tsuyuki and K. Kurihara
Low Frequency Oscillations of Tropical Forcing and Global Structures . . . . . . . 101
Julia Nogues-Paegle and Beng-Chun Lee
Quasi-Stationary and Propagating Fluctuations in Latent Heat Release From
Tropical Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
William K.-M. Lau
Some Problems on the Interannual Variability of Indonesian Monsoon Rainfall 113
Tetsuzo Yasunari and Ramasamy Suppiah
Global Simultaneity of the Abrupt Seasonal Changes in Precipitation During
May and June of 1979. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
J. Matsumoto, M. Shinoda, T. Eguchi, K. Masuda, T. Mikami,
K. Iwasaki, and H. Kitajima
An Overview on the Baiu Front in East Asia as a Coupled System of the
Tropics and Middle Latitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Hiroshi Tanaka, Kuranoshin Kato, Sadamu Saitoh, Guosheng Lui, Yutaka
Ishizaka, and Takao Takeda
Influence of Tropical Forcing on the Atmospheric Circulation of Middle
and High Latitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Huang Ronghui
On the Feedback Role of Tropical Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Li Chong-yin
Precipitation in Northern Peru During the 1982-83 El Nino: Variations in
Daily Precipitation Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Takehiko Mikami
vi
SESSION B. SPACEBORNE AND AIRBORNE TECHNIQUES FOR
REMOTE SENSING OR RAINFALL
Estimating Climatic Scale Tropical Precipitation From Satellite Observations . . 151
Phillip A. Arkin
The Evolution of Mesoscale Convective Systems: Evidence From Radar and
Satellite Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Edward J. Zipser
Methodology For Using TRMM-Contemporary Remote Data Sets In
Support of TRMM Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
James C. Dodge
The Uses of the Highly Reflective Cloud Data Set in Large-Scale Tropical
Rainfall Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Oswaldo Garcia
Microwave Observations and Modeling of Deep Convection……………. 185
Rnbert F.. Adler, N. Prasad, Wei-Kuo Tao, H.-Y. Toh, Robert A. Mack,
and Joanne Simpson
A Tropical Rain System Observed by the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel
Microwave Radiometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Roy W Spencer
A Statistical-Physical Interpretation of ESMR-5 Brightness Temperatures Over
the Gate Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
David A. Short
Summary of Rain Measurements With an Airborne Microwave Rain
Scatterometer/Radiometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Masaharu Fujita, Ken’ichi Okamoto, Shin Yoshikado, Harunobu Masuko
and Kenji Nakamura
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Rain Radar……… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
K. Okamoto, T. Kozu, K. Nakamura and T. /hara
The Estimation of Precipitation Intensity in the Presence of Surface
Backscatter and the Converse Using a Spacebome Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
K. &stwood Im and David Atlas
Airborne Rain Mapping Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
WJ. Wilson, G.S. Parks, F.K. Li, K.E. Im, and R.J. Howard
vii
Some Characteristics of the Mirror-Image Return in Rain….. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
R. Meneghini and K. Nakamura
Radar Rainfall Measurement System Using SAR and Conical-Scan
Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Richard K. Moore and Shou-Sheng Xie
SESSION C. RETRIEVAL ALGORITHMS AND DATA PROCESSING
AND ANALYSIS
Rain Retrieval Algorithms for Spaceborne Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
David Atlas and Robert Meneghini
Rain Retrieval Algorithms by Spaceborne Radar
Kenji Nakamura and Robert Meneghini
265
Raindrop Size Distributions in Warm Rain at Penang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Roland list, D. Hudak, R. Nissen, N.P. Tung, S.K. Soo and T.S. Kang
Measurement of Size Distribution Transition of the Precipitation Particles
Using a Two-Wavelength Radar Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Tatsuo Yokoyama
Towards Trispectral Satellite Rainfall Monitoring Algorithms
E.C. Barrett, G. D’Souza, Clare H. Power, and C. Kidd
On a New Approach for Convective Rain Area Delineation With NOAA-7
285
Split Window Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Toshiro Inoue
A Relationship Between the Upper Cloudiness and Precipitation in the
Western Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Takashi Eguchi
Cloud Classification in Satellite Imagery: A Latitudinal and Seasonal Variation
of Cloud Characteristic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Tadashi Aso, Kazuhiro Oosawa, and Yoshiaki Takeuchi
An Approach to Studies of Interannual Variations of Rainfall Using
Multifrequency Dual Polarization Microwave Radiances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
B.B. Hinton and W.S. Olson
TRMM Data System Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 I 7
Daesoo Han
viii
A Radiative Transfer Model of Microwave Radiances from Horizontally Finite
Clouds Containing Ice and Liquid Hydrometeor Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
J.A. Weinman and C.D. Kummerow
SESSION D. SAMPLING STRATEGIES
Survey of Sampling Problems for TRMM………. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Gerald R. North
Performance of a Visible-Infrared Technique in Estimating Monsoon
Rainfall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
David W. Martin and Brian A. Auvine
Modeling Tropical Rainfall From Radar and Raingage Data–Parameter Estimation Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Witold R Krajewski and James A. Smith
Estimating Areal Rainfall From Rain Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Long S. Chiu
SESSION E. l\flSSION REQUIREMENTS AND DATA MANAGEMENT
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Thomas Keating
Error Analysis for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 377
Thomas T. Wilheit
On the Design Issues for a Spacebome Rain Mapping Radar…………… 387
RK. Li, K.E. Im, W.J. Wilson, and C. Elachi
Launch Vehicle for the TRMM Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
H. Takatsuka and Y. Shibata
Data Relay & Tracking Equipment on TRMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
N. Kawajiri, T. Mito, A. Awasawa, Y. Tsujino, and T. Doura
SESSION F. GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS
Operational Precipitation Observation System in Japan Meteorological Agency 407
K. Takase, Y. Takemura, K. Aonashi, N. Kitabatake, Y. Makihara,
and Y. Nyomura
ix
Validating Space Observations of Rainfall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Otto W Thiele
Estimation of Tropical Rainfall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Michael Garstang, Claire Cosgrove, Robert Swap, and Steve Greco
TRMM Ground Truth in a Monsoon Environment: Darwin, Australia 433
T.D. Keenan, G.J. Holland and M.J. Manton
Two Improved Z-R Relationships: The Process Recurrent Method and the
Variable Coefficient Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Peicai Yang, JinLi Liu, Hai Lin and Daren Lu
Boundary Layer Measurements of a Convective Rain Band In :rropical
Cyclone IRMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
B.R Ryan and R.C. O’Brien
Radio Link Measurements for TRMM Ground Truth
T. /hara and K. Okamoto
An Estimation of Precipitation Intensity From GMS Data by Using Digital
453
Radar Echo Intensity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Shingo Osano, Toshihiro Motoki and Kazufumi Suzuki
Estimation of Lagged Space-Time Correlations In Rain Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
S. Nakamoto, J.-T. U-ung, D.A. Short, and G.R. North
Rainfall Estimate From Digital Radars In Taiwan Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Tai-Chi Chen Wang, Long-nan Chang, and Pay-Liam Lin
Polarimetric Radar Characterization of TRMM Microphysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
A.R. Jameson
On the Combining of Rainguage, Radar and Satellite Estimates of Rainfall . . . . 493
G.L. Austin
VHF Radar Remote Sensing of Rainfall Rate and Vertical Profile of Liquid
Water Content Over Taiwan During the Time Period of Typhoon Wayne . . . . . . 497
R.J. Hung, Y.D. Tsao, A.J. Chen, and L.-N. Chang
Indirect Technique for Measuring Rainfall Over the Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Paul C. Etter, Joseph J. Tamul Jr., and Peter J. Lamb
Weather Monitoring System From Earth Observation Satellites
T. Sakata, H. Shimada, and Y. Matsumae
517
AUTHOR INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
SUBJECT INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527

Description

[ADP-vol123]

Tropical rain systems constitute a life-giving resource for billions of people, but their large variability represents a serious threat to those same people in the form of drought or flood extremes. The tropical rainfall process provides an important coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere and a key link in the quasi-periodic phenomenon known as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Of course, convective tropical rain systems provide an important mechanism for fluxes from the troposphere to the stratosphere. Inherent in these precipitation-producing processes is a mechanism for charge separation between the earth and the ionosphere and, finally, precipitation provides an important scavenging mechanism for removing gaseous and aerosol chemicals from the lower atmosphere.

Significant progress in the area of tropical rainfall measurements has been spurred by the development of new measuring techniques that make it feasible to observe precipitation from space. This, of course, presents the potential for measuring rainfall not only over well-instrumented continental areas, but over the vast oceanic regions as well.

Contents

  • Requirements for Measuring Tropical Rainfall, Its Nature and Its Role in The General Circulation
  • Spaceborne and Airborne Techniques for Remote Sensing or Rainfall
  • Retrieval Algorithms and Data Processing and Analysis
  • Sampling Strategies
  • Mission Requirements and Data Management
  • Ground-Based Measurements
  • Author Index
  • Subject Index

ISBN 0-937194-14-X, 1988, Hardcover, 528 pages